We identify how and to what extend companies can profit from processing of side streams towards high value products. We provide an overview of possible scenarios as well as potential ROI (Return On Investment) models. For example, what happens if you account for environmental pollution in the price of a product (‘true’ pricing)? We have done this for, amongst others, De Verspillingsfabriek (The Waste Factory). In the project Noord4Bio, upon request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, we mapped opportunities for the bio-economy in the northern part of the Netherlands. For nine clusters of raw materials and products involved in waste processing, including carbohydrates, proteins, cellulose and bioplastics, we estimated the potential market, production volume, the necessary investment and the additional employment which could be created.