Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are soils transformed by indigenous people more than 500 years ago. A research was conducted in the Colombian Amazon region to study how indigenous people use natural and these human-made soils and how much the presence of different soils affects management and diversity of their staple crop cassava. Results indicate that ADE patches are important sites for settling and cultivation of some crop species but not to cassava cultivation. Cassava diversity is not affected by the presence of ADE but is affected by cultural values indigenous associated to manioc and to maintenance of diversity. Indigenous people contributed to the Amazonian diversity transforming the Amazonian landscape through agriculture, creating ADE and many cassava varieties.