Anaemia has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity as well as with decreased physical functioning and quality of life. On average, globally, 50% of anaemia is assumed to be attributable to iron deficiency. There exists in Africa today a rich diversity of environments (diet, geography, climate, pathogen exposure and many other factors) that likely act in concert to influence the development of iron deficiency. Of interest is the manner in which genetic factors interact with environmental factors such as diet to increase susceptibility to iron deficiency. Understanding the genetics of iron status is key to optimizing strategies to address iron deficiency as well as discovering appropriate biomarkers to monitor iron status in populations. This study sought to assess genetic markers associated with iron status in African populations, to enable future utilisation at the public health level.