Dry fractionation and bioprocessing for novel legume ingredients
Dry fractionation is a sustainable method for production of protein concentrates from legumes such as soy, pea and chickpea with retain native protein functionality. However, despite the proteins in the dry- enriched fractions retain their native state, anti-nutritional factors such as flatulence-causing α- galactosides remain in the final product. The aim of this thesis was therefore to develop a novel sustainable route for processing legumes into functional protein-enriched ingredients with enhanced nutritional value. The focus was on the use of the combination of dry fractionation and solid-state fermentation. Dry fractionation, which relies on the combination of dry milling, and air classification or electrostatic separation was investigated to achieve better purity and yield. Solid-state fermentation was used to remove anti-nutritional factors, while minimizing water addition and thus energy use. The novel processing route yielded a protein-rich sourdough with less anti-nutritional factors. It was successfully evaluated to produce protein-fortified bread. Concluding, the combination of dry fractionation and solid-state fermentation is sustainable, and no additives are required for achieving shelf life. This may give potential for foods that aspire to ‘clean labelling’.