Pesticide lifecycle management encompasses a range of elements from legislation, regulation, manufacturing, application, risk reduction, monitoring, and enforcement to disposal of pesticide waste. A survey was conducted in 2017–2018 to describe the contemporary global status of pesticide lifecycle management, to identify where the gaps are found. A three-tiered questionnaire was distributed to government entities in 194 countries. The response rate was 29%, 27% and 48% to the first, second and third part of the questionnaire, respectively. The results showed gaps for most of the selected indicators of pesticide management, suggesting that pesticide efficacy and safety to human health and the environment are likely being compromised at various stages of the pesticide lifecycle, and at varying degrees across the globe. Low-income countries generally had the highest incidence of gaps. Particular shortcomings were deficiencies in pesticide legislation, inadequate capacity for pesticide registration, protection against occupational exposure to pesticides, consumer protection against residues in food, and environmental protection against pesticide contamination. Policy support for, and implementation of, pesticide use-reduction strategies such as integrated pest management and integrated vector management has been inadequate across regions. Priority actions for structural improvement in pesticide lifecycle management are proposed, including pesticide use-reduction strategies, targeted interventions, and resource mobilization.