Most of the following are woody but some chamaephytes e.g. Phagnalon spp., Artemisia spp. and Asparagus spp. do not have secondary ligneous woody thickening in strict botanical terminology.
However these genera have a shrubby form and have perennating buds above ground level. Height is therefore the only consistent arbiter. The woody trees and shrubs refer to individual plants and life forms. In the landscape groups of trees and shrubs combine to form forest and scrub habitats.
Dwarf chamaephytes (DCH)
Dwarf shrubs below 0.05 m e.g. Dryas octopetala, Salix herbacea.
Shrubby chamaephytes (SCH)
Undershrubs 0.05-0.3 m. e.g. Thymus vulgaris, Lavendula stoechas.
Low phanerophytes (LPH)
Low shrubs, buds between 0.30-0.6 m, e.g. Myrica gale, Betula nana.
Mid phanerophytes (MPH)
Mid shrubs, buds between 0.6-2.0 m, e.g. Pistacia lentiscus, Cornus mas.
Tall phanerophytes (TPH)
Tall shrubs, buds between 2.0-5.0 m, e.g. Salix cinerea, Corylus avellana.
Forest phanerophytes (FPH)
Trees over 5.0 m, e.g. Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica.
Mega phanerophytes (GPH): Trees over 40m.
The following phenological (leaf) forms apply to the seven height categories
- Winter deciduous (DEC): e.g. Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior
- Evergreen (EVR): e.g. Quercus ilex, Laurus nobilis
- Conifers (CON): e.g. Pinus nigra., Juniperus communis.
- Non-leafy evergreen (NLE): e.g. Sarothamnus scoparia, Ulex europaeus
- Summer deciduous (SUM): e.g. Sarcopotherium spinosum, Astragalus massiliensis