INREF is the development oriented Interdisciplinary Research and Education Fund of Wageningen University. Most of the problem oriented research is conducted by 'sandwich' PhD students working in groups on important topics concerning the countries in the South.
This joint research program between Maastricht University (The Netherlands) and the University of Lampung (Indonesia) will analyze the social and economic effects of global certifying sustainability partnerships that aim to connect Southern agricultural production to Northern consumption. The focus of the research is on global partnerships and certification schemes. The global coffee and palm oil chains serve as main fields of research in the assessment part of the program. The prospective part of the research includes cocoa, spices, and aquaculture; commodities on which new certifying partnerships are in an early stage of development and implementation. The research combines governance theory and economic theory and applies a variety of quantitative and qualitative integrative/sustainability assessment methods.