This chapter examines the impacts of hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’), a form of unconventional gas extraction, on rural communities. While some potential in terms of employment growth and the construction sector are considered, as well as the rationale behind such approaches to development, this chapter focuses mostly on the increasing resistance against fracking. Such conflicts are often rooted in varying ideas about land and land-use and differing meanings of natural resources in general. The analysis of contemporary fracking and land use conflicts draws on examples from the fast-growing literature on the impacts of fracking in Australia, the United States and Europe, as well as our own research. In addition, the ways environmental conflicts evolve in the domain of hydraulic fracturing are examined drawing parallels with wind energy and mineral extraction debates.