Protein fortification of wheat bread using dry fractionated chickpea protein-enriched fraction or its sourdough

Xing, Qinhui; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina; Zhang, Lu; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.


Chickpea protein-enriched ingredients were prepared by combining dry milling, air classification, and optionally solid-state fermentation. The fermentation was carried out with the autochthonous LAB strain Pediococcus acidilactici to reduce the level of antinutritional factors. A protein-enriched chickpea fraction and its sourdough were used to partially replace wheat flour with 20%–30% w/w in wheat bread. The protein content of bread increased by 38.5% on dry basis with a 30% w/w replacement. As the substitution level increased from 0% to 20% and 30%, a longer dough mixing time was required, the specific volume of the bread decreased, and the crumb structure became denser. The levels of raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose in the sourdough bread were reduced by 75.4%, 97.6%, and 90.0% compared to the unfermented bread, respectively. With sourdough addition the crust showed less browning and exhibited a better microbiological stability compared to that of the other breads.