Simultaneous analyses of fluorescence decay and anisotropy decay in green fluorescent protein dimer from jellyfish Clytia gregaria : FRET and molecular dynamics simulation

Nunthaboot, Nadtanet; Tanaka, Fumio; Borst, Jan W.; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.


Structural and dynamic behaviors of the green fluorescent protein dimer from jellyfish Clytia gregaria (cgGFP) were investigated by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Both neutral and ionic forms of the chromophore, p-hydroxybenzylideneimidazolinone (GYS) were considered. The partial atomic charges of the chromophore were derived by BCC and RESP approaches. The structures were compared between the anionic and neutral cgGFP, and between the two subunits (Sub A and Sub B) of the protein dimer. The observed fluorescence intensity and anisotropy decays were further analyzed with theoretical expressions by employing the atomic coordinates of neutral cgGFP obtained by MD simulation. It was assumed that the fluorescence quenching of GYSA and GYSB is ascribed to HB formations between heteroatoms of GYSs and nearby amino acids. Excellent agreement between the observed and calculated intensity decays, and the observed and calculated anisotropy decays were obtained with RESP1 model. The agreements were better in RESP model than those in BCC one. Mean quenching constants of GYSA and GYSB were 0.27 and 0.59 ns−1 overall MD snapshots with RESP1. Mean value of square of direction cosine between the two transition moments of GYSs was 0.74, and that of square of orientation factor was 0.53, and the FRET rates from GYSA to GYSB, and from GYSB to GYSA were 0.87 and 1.87 ns−1.