The Gramineae have been a pioneer group among non-woody plants to be modelled with the approach of functional-structural plant modelling (FSPM). During the past decade, models have focussed on morphological aspects of plant development. They now provide crop scientists with general guidelines for building new cereal models. We present some of them here, considering the different aspects of cereal architectural modelling: plant development, pattern formation and plant geometry. We also review some significant examples that illustrate the different types of uses of these models for agronomic research. We conclude that the next generation of cereal models should be based on a less empirical modelling of the processes that control morphogenesis.