Parenteral vaccination of mammalian livestock with Newcastle disease virus-based vector vaccines offers optimal efficacy and safety

Harmsen, M.M.; Antonis, A.F.G.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Kortekaas, J.A.


Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian virus that is being evaluated as a vaccine vector for the delivery of foreign genes in mammals. The use of NDV as a vaccine vector in these species offers two major advantages. First, NDV is highly attenuated in mammals, rendering its use inherently safe. Second, mammals lack pre-existing NDV immunity, which minimizes the risk of vaccination failure. NDV-vector vaccines are generally administered to mammals via the respiratory route. We recently showed that intramuscular vaccination with NDV-based Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) vaccines provides complete protection in mice and induces neutralizing antibodies in sheep and cattle, the main target species of RVFV. Here, we discuss the use of NDV as a vaccine vector for applications in mammalian livestock with an emphasis on the vaccination route. We also report the results of novel experiments that underscore our notion that vaccination via a parenteral route is more effective than immunization via the respiratory route.