Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new class of regulatory molecules in animals where they regulate gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Recent studies also identified lncRNAs in plant genomes, revealing a new level of transcriptional complexity in plants. Thousands of lncRNAs have been predicted in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, but only a few have been studied in depth. Results Here we report the identification of Arabidopsis lncRNAs that are expressed during the vegetative stage of development in either the shoot apical meristem or in leaves. We found that hundreds of lncRNAs are expressed in these tissues, of which 50 show differential expression upon an increase in ambient temperature. One of these lncRNAs, FLINC, is down-regulated at higher ambient temperature and affects ambient temperature-mediated flowering in Arabidopsis. Conclusion A number of ambient temperature responsive lncRNAs were identified with potential roles in the regulation of temperature-dependent developmental changes, such as the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive (flowering) phase. The challenge for the future is to characterize the biological function and molecular mode of action of the large number of ambient temperature-regulated lncRNAs that have been identified in this study.