Intestinal Viral Loads and Inactivation Kinetics of Livestock Viruses Relevant for Natural Casing Production: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Jelsma, H.; Wijnker, Joris J.; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Wisselink, H.J.


Animal intestines are the source of edible sausage casings, which are traded worldwide and may come from areas where notifiable infectious animal diseases are prevalent. To estimate the risks of virus contamination, knowledge about the quantity of virus and decimal reduction values of the standard preservation method by salting is of great importance. A literature search, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, was performed in search engine CAB Abstracts to determine the viral load of 14 relevant animal viruses in natural casings or intestines. Only a very limited number of scientific publications per virus were found and viral loads in the intestines varied from high for ASFV (five publications), BVDV (3), CSFV (6), PPRV (3), RPV (2) and TGEV (3) to moderate for PEDV (2) and SVDV (3), low for HEV (2) and FMDV (5), very low for VESV (1) and negative for PrV (2) and VSV (1). PRRSV was found in intestines, however, viral titers were not published. Three viruses (BVDV, CSFV and PPRV) with high viral loads were selected to search for their inactivation kinetics. For casings, no inactivation data were found, however, thermal inactivation data of these viruses were available, but differed in quantity, quality and matrices. In conclusion, important data gaps still exist when it comes to the quantitative inactivation of viruses in sausage casings or livestock intestines.