Aims: Dicarbonyl compounds contribute to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and the development of insulin resistance and vascular complications. Dicarbonyl stress may already be detrimental in obesity. We evaluated whether diet-induced weight loss can effectively reverse dicarbonyl stress in abdominally obese men. Materials and methods: Plasma samples were collected from lean (n = 25) and abdominally obese men (n = 52) in the fasting state, and during a mixed meal test (MMT). Abdominally obese men were randomized to 8 weeks of dietary weight loss or habitual diet, followed by a second MMT. The α-dicarbonyls methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and AGEs were measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) was measured using the AGE reader. T-tests were used for the cross-sectional analysis and ANCOVA to assess the treatment effect. Results: Postprandial glucose, MGO and 3-DG concentrations were higher in obese men as compared to lean men (p < 0.05 for all). Fasting dicarbonyls, AGEs, and SAF were not different between lean and obese men. After the weight loss intervention, fasting MGO levels tended to decrease by 25 nmol/L (95%-CI: -51-0.5; p = 0.054). Postprandial dicarbonyls were decreased after weight loss as compared to the control group: iAUC of MGO decreased by 57% (5280 nmol/L∙min; 95%-CI: 33–10526; p = 0.049), of GO by 66% (11,329 nmol/L∙min; 95%-CI: 495–22162; p = 0.041), and of 3-DG by 45% (20,175 nmol/L∙min; 95%-CI: 5351–35000; p = 0.009). AGEs and SAF did not change significantly after weight loss. Conclusion: Abdominal obesity is characterized by increased postprandial dicarbonyl stress, which can be reduced by a weight loss intervention. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT01675401.