Bluetongue (BT) is a disease in ruminants caused by an Orbivirus that is transmitted by midges. There are at least 29 serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV). The virus reproduces in ruminants and in midges. Wageningen Bioveterinary Research conducts research on this disease.
Which animals are susceptible to bluetongue?
Infected midges naturally infect domestic and wild ruminants (for example, sheep, cattle, goats and deer) and camelids (such as the llama and alpaca) by bites during feeding. Cattle show higher and longer viraemia than sheep, but the disease is seen more frequently and more severe in sheep (depending on the serotype of BTV).
What are the symptoms?
The disease is characterized by inflammation of the mucus membranes around the mouth and nose, this inflammation causes the rarely seen 'blue tongue' that gives the disease its name.
Can people become infected?
Bluetongue does not affect humans so there are no public health implications.
Where does the bluetongue virus circulate?
Bluetongue occurs almost everywhere in the world. In Europe, the spread of Bluetongue virus was formerly associated to the presence of Culicoides imicola. In 2006 it became clear that BTV could also be spread by endemic species of Culicoides in Northern parts of Europe.
Is the Netherlands free of bluetongue?
After several years without new infections, the Netherlands, together with a number of other North-Western European countries, was officially declared free of bluetongue in 2012.
In Southern Europe there is great difficulty in getting the different serotypes of the virus under control, partly due to reintroductions from North Africa.
How can we prevent the spread?
The spread of bluetongue can be reduced by controlling midges. Local application of insect repellents is possible to reduce the risk of contamination.
Can animals be tested for bluetongue?
As the national reference laboratory of the Netherlands, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research can test animals for bluetongue. A suspicion can be refuted or confirmed. Healthy animals can also be tested to rule out bluetongue, for example for import/export, semen and ovum production and national animal transport.
Rapid generation of replication-deficient monovalent and multivalent vaccines for bluetongue virus: protection against virulent virus challenge in cattle and sheep
Transplacental transmission of BTV-8 in sheep: BTV viraemia, antibody responses and vaccine efficacy in lambs infected in utero
Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy
Bluetongue virus with mutated genome segment 10 to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals: A genetic DIVA approach
Vaccination/challenge trials in sheep with DISC vaccines for Bluetongue
Main determinants of Culicoides adult population distribution and abundance during 2007-08 Bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in the Netherlands
Effect of vaccination with an inactivated vaccine on transplacental transmission of BTV-8 in mid term pregnant ewes and heifers
Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection
Bluetongue Viruses Based on Modified-Live Vaccine Serotype 6 with Exchanged Outer Shell Proteins Confer Full Protection in Sheep against Virulent BTV8
Bluetongue virus serotype 6 in Europe in 2008 - Emergence and disappearance of an unexpected non-virulent BTV