Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and viral disease affecting many species of birds. ND is caused by a virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Wageningen Bioveterinary Research conducts research on this disease.
Members of this virus family have a single stranded, linear, RNA. Severity of the disease is extremely variable from subclinical until high mortality depending on the strain of virus, species and age of bird, concurrent disease, and pre-existing immunity. Virulent strain of the Newcastle disease virus cause severe disease of the digestive, respiratory and/or nervous systems in particular in susceptible domestic poultry.
In cage and aviary birds, and wild birds the outcome of the disease depends much more on the type of bird. A death rate of almost 100 percent can occur in unvaccinated poultry flocks. The disease is transmitted through infected birds' droppings and secretions from the nose, mouth, and eyes or indirect by exposure to materials contaminated with these secretions. The incubation period of the disease in poultry flocks ranges from 2 to 15 days.
Animal models for COVID-19
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Dortmans, J.C.F.M., Venema-kemper, S., Peeters, B.P.H., Koch, G. 2014. Field vaccinated chickens with low antibody titres show equally insufficient protection against matching and non-matching genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus. Vet. Microbiol. 172: 100-107.
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C.F.M. Dortmans, B.P.H. Peeters, G. Koch. 2012. Newcastle disease virus outbreaks: vaccine mismatch or inadequate application? Vet Microbiol. 160: 17-22.
Wei D, Sun N, Nan G, Wang Y, Liu HQ, Peeters B, Chen ZN, Bian H. 2012. Construction of recombinant newcastle disease virus italien strain for oncolytic virotherapy of tumors. Hum Gene Ther. 23(7): 700-710.
Dortmans, J.C.F.M., Koch, G., Rottier, P.J.M., Peeters, B.P.H. 2011. Virulence of Newcastle disease virus: what is known so far? Vet. Res. 42: 122
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Dortmans, J. C., Rottier, P. J., Koch, G., Peeters, B. P. 2011. Passaging of a Newcastle disease virus pigeon variant in chickens results in selection of viruses with mutations in the polymerase complex enhancing virus replication and virulence. J. Gen. Virol. 92: 336-45. Project BAS nrs WOT-01-001-003, WOT-01-003-012.
Kortekaas J, Dekker A, de Boer SM, Weerdmeester K, Vloet RP, de Wit AA, Peeters BP, Moormann RJ. Intramuscular inoculation of calves with an experimental Newcastle disease virus-based vector vaccine elicits neutralizing antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus. (2010) Vaccine 28:2271-6.
Boven, M. van; Bouma, A. ; Fabri, T.H.F. ; Katsma, E. ; Hartog, L. ; Koch, G. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination. Avian Pathol. 2008 February; 37(1): 1–5.
Janke, M., Peeters, B., de Leeuw, O., Moormann, R., Arnold, A., Fournier, P. and Schirrmacher, V. Recombinant Newcsastle disease virus (NDV) with inserted gene coding for GM-CSF as a new vector for cancer immunogene therapy (2007) Gene Therapy, 1-11.
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Wakamatsu, N., King, D.J., Seal, B.S., Peeters, B.P.H. and Brown, C.C. The effect on pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus LaSota strain from a mutation of the fusion cleavage site to a virulent sequence. (2006) Avian Dis. 50:483-488.
Bian, H., Fournier, P., Moormann, R., Peeters, B. & Schirrmacher, V. Selective gene transfer to tumor cells by recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus via a bispecific fusion protein. (2005) Int. J. Oncol. 26:431-439.
Bian, H., Fournier, P., Moormann, R., Peeters, B. & Schirrmacher, V. Selective gene transfer in vitro to tumor cells via recombinant Newcastle disease virus. (2005) Cancer Gene Therapy 12:295-303.
Bian, H., Fournier, P., Peeters, B., & Schirrmacher, V. Tumor-targeted gene transfer in vivo via recombinant Newcastle disease virus modified by a bispecific fusion protein. (2005) Int. J. Oncol. 27: 377-384.
Al-Garib, S.O. ; Gielkens, A.L.J. ; Gruys, E. ; Peeters, B.P.H. ; Koch, G. Tissue tropism in the chicken embryo of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle diseases strains that express green fluorescence protein; Avian Pathol. 2003 Dec;32(6):591-6.
Al-Garib, S.O. ; Gielkens, A.L.J. ; Gruys, E. ; Hartog, L. ; Koch, G. Immunoglobulin class distribution of systemic and mucosal antibody responses to Newcastle disease in chickens. Avian Dis. 2003 Jan-Mar;47(1):32-40.
Al-Garib, S.O. ; Gielkens, A.L.J. ; Gruys, E. ; Koch, G. Review of Newcastle disease virus with particular references to immunity and vaccination. World's Poultry Science Journal (2003), 59 : 185-200
de Leeuw O.S., L. Hartog, G. Koch, and B.P. Peeters. Effect of fusion protein cleavage site mutations on virulence of Newcastle disease virus: non-virulent cleavage site mutants revert to virulence after one passage in chicken brain. (2003) J. Gen. Virol. 84:475-484.
Al-Garib, S.O., A.L.J. Gielkens, E. Gruys, B.P.H. Peeters and G. Koch. Tissue tropism in the chicken embryo of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle disease strains that express green fluorescent protein. Avian Pathol. 2003 Dec;32(6):591-6.
Peeters, B.P. ; Leeuw, O.S. de; Verstegen, I. ; Koch, G. ; Gielkens, A.L. Generation of a recombinant chimeric Newcastle disease virus vaccine that allows serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. Vaccine Volume 19, Issues 13-14, 8 February 2001, Pages 1616-1627
Peeters, B.P.H., O.S. de Leeuw, I. Verstegen, G. Koch, and A.L.J. Gielkens. (2001) Generation of a recombinant chimeric Newcastle disease virus vaccine that allows serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. Vaccine 19:1616-1627. (2003) Avian Pathology 32:591-596.
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Peeters, B.P.H. ; Leeuw, O.S. de; Koch, G. ; Gielkens, A.L.J. Rescue of Newcastle disease virus from cloned cDNA: Evidence that cleavability of the fusion protein is a major determinant for virulence. Journal of Virology, June 1999, p. 5001-5009, Vol. 73, No. 6
Maas, R.A. ; Oei, H.L. ; Kemper, S. ; Koch, G. ; Visser, L.The use of homologous virus in the haemagglutination-inhibition assay after vaccination with Newcastle disease virus strain La Sota or clone30 leads to an over estimation of protective serum antibody titres. Avian Pathology, Volume 27, Issue 6 December 1998 , pages 625 – 631
Koch, G. ; Czifra, G. ; Engström, B.E. Detection of Newcastle disease virus-specific antibodies in ostrich sera by three serological methods. The Veterinary Record, Vol 143, Issue 1, 10-12
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Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Sijtsma, S.R. ; West, C.E. ; Karabinis, Y. ; Sijtsma, O.K.W. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der; Koch, G. Effect of vitamin A deficiency and Newcastle disease virus infection on IgA and IgM secretion in chickens. Br J Nutr. 1992 Nov;68(3):753-63.