There is a need to approach the concept of resilience from a more integrated as well as normative perspective. It cannot be a purpose in itself and it relates to a variety of phenomena which need to be taken into account explicitly. Resilience cannot be an alternative for a sustainability focus; rather the two concepts represent two mutually complementing perspectives. This paper presents opportunities which the theory of modal aspects (TOMA) offers for developing such integrated and normative perspectives on resilience (innovations) in the context of sustainability ambitions. It demonstrates TOMA’s potential to inform model design and selecting indicators for evaluating STE resilience, and to generate rich perspectives on what needs to be considered conceptually and practically in making resilience work for sustainable development.