Next generation risk assessment of human exposure to anti-androgens using newly defined comparator compound values

Tongeren, Tessa C.A. van; Moxon, Thomas E.; Dent, Matthew P.; Li, Hequn; Carmichael, Paul L.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.


Next Generation Risk Assessment (NGRA) can use the so-called Dietary Comparator Ratio (DCR) to evaluate the safety of a defined exposure to a compound of interest. The DCR compares the Exposure Activity Ratio (EAR) for the compound of interest, to the EAR of an established safe level of human exposure to a comparator compound with the same putative mode of action. A DCR ≤ 1 indicates the exposure evaluated is safe. The present study aimed at defining adequate and safe comparator compound exposures for evaluation of anti-androgenic effects, using 3,3-diindolylmethane (DIM), from cruciferous vegetables, and the anti-androgenic drug bicalutamide (BIC). EAR values for these comparator compounds were defined using the AR-CALUX assay. The adequacy of the new comparator EAR values was evaluated using PBK modelling and by comparing the generated DCRs of a series of test compound exposures to actual knowledge on their safety regarding in vivo anti-androgenicity. Results obtained supported the use of AR-CALUX-based comparator EARs for DCR-based NGRA for putative anti-androgenic compounds. This further validates the DCR approach as an animal free in silico/in vitro 3R compliant method in NGRA.