Species Differences in in vitro and Estimated in vivo Kinetics for Intestinal Microbiota Mediated Metabolism of Acetyl-deoxynivalenols

Jin, Jing; Spenkelink, Albertus; Beekmann, Karsten; Baccaro, Marta; Xing, Fuguo; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.


Scope: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives 3-acetyl-DON (3-Ac-DON) and 15-acetyl-DON (15-Ac-DON) are important mycotoxins of concern in the modern food chain. Methods and Results: The present study reveals that the rate of de-acetylation in in vitro anaerobic fecal incubations decreased in the order rat > mouse > human > pig for 3-Ac-DON, and mouse > human > rat > pig for 15-Ac-DON. The ratio between the de-acetylation rate of 3-Ac-DON and 15-Ac-DON varies with the species. Scaling of the kinetic parameters to the in vivo situation results in catalytic efficiencies decreasing in the order human > rat > pig > mouse for 3-Ac-DON and human > pig > rat > mouse for 15-Ac-DON. The results obtained indicate that in mice, 3-Ac-DON can be fully deconjugated while 15-Ac-DON cannot. In rats, pigs, and humans, both 3-Ac-DON and 15-Ac-DON can be totally transformed by gut fecal microbiota during the estimated intestinal residence time. A correlation analysis between the deacetylation rate and the relative abundance of the microbiome suggests Lachnospiraceae may be involved in the deacetylation process. Conclusion: It is concluded that interspecies differences in deacetylation of acetylated DONs exist but that in risk assessment assumption of complete intestinal deconjugation provides an adequate approach.