The presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in various water bodies and the associated threats to eco-system and human society have raised increasing concerns. To fight against such a problem, TiO2 photocatalysis is considered to be a powerful tool. In recent decades, TiO2 nanotube array (TNA) fabricated by electrochemical anodization emerged as a viable immobilized catalyst and its applications on CECs removal have gained a considerable amount of research interest. We herein present a critical review on the development of TNA and its applications on the removal of aqueous CECs. In this work, the CECs removal in different TNA based processes, the CECs removal mechanisms, the role of TNA properties, the role of operational parameters, and the role of water matrices are discussed. Moreover, perspectives on the current research progress are presented and recommendations on future research are elaborated.