Using light emitting diodes (LED) instead of conventionally used high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps as a supplemental light source in greenhouses results in a higher efficacy (µmol light per J electricity) and makes it possible to customize the light spectrum. To explore the effects of LED and HPS on gas exchange, thermal relations, photosynthesis, and water status of young tomato plants, seven genotypes were grown in a greenhouse under LED (95% red, 5% blue) or HPS lamps in four experiments differing in the fraction of lamp light over natural light. HPS lights emit a broader spectrum of red (40%), green–yellow (50%), blue (5%), and far-red (5%) and a substantial amount of infrared radiation (heat). Young tomato plants grown under LED showed lower leaf temperature and higher stomatal density, stomatal conductance (gs ) and transpiration rate (E) than plants grown under HPS; this may be due to the different supplemental light spectrum. The young plants grown under LED tended to have increased photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, the water stress indices CWSI and IG, which were obtained using thermal imaging, were positively correlated with gas exchange-derived gs and E, putting forward the use of thermal imaging for the phenotyping of transpiration. Under LED light, photosynthetic gas exchange was generally increased, which agreed with the water stress indices. The extent of this increase was genotype-dependent. All differences between LED and HPS were smaller in the experiments where the fraction of lamp light over natural light was smaller.