The aim of this study was to examine whether antimicrobial resistance profiles of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species isolated from milk of dairy cows differed between bacterial species, and to compare results obtained by phenotypic and genotypic profiling of resistance to penicillin, oxacillin and macrolide–lincosamide (ML) antibiotics. Of 170 CNS isolates, 83 (48.8%) were phenotypically susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays, 40.6% expressed resistance to a single compound or a single class of compounds, and 10.6% to multiple drug classes. Nine percent, 68%, 19%, 4% and 1% of isolates were negative for all resistance genes tested by PCR or positive for one, two, three or four resistance genes, respectively. Phenotypic resistance and detection of resistance genes other than blaZ were relatively rare in Staphylococcus chromogenes, which was the most common CNS species (36% of 170 genotypically identified isolates). In Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was the second most common CNS species (14% of isolates), phenotypic penicillin resistance was significantly more common than in other CNS species. Almost half of the S. epidermidis isolates carried multiple resistance genes and 30% carried the methicillin resistance gene mecA. Survival analysis using MIC values showed significant associations between phenotypic and genotypic resistance profiles. We conclude that CNS species from bovine milk differ significantly in phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, which has implications for treatment and management decisions.