The paper discusses animal genetic resources in the context of the Nagoya Protocol, providing an overview of the distinctive features and practices in this sector of genetic resources. It presents how animal genetic resources are utilized, who are the users and providers, and what are the trends in gene flow of these resources. The paper reflects on current access measures and arrangements for local breeds and for international commercial breeds. Key benefits arising from the international exchange of animal genetic resources for research and livestock production and current developments in the sector supporting the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol are presented. References to the scope and application of EU ABS legislation are also made. The paper underlines the importance of continuous undisturbed access to animal genetic resources for research and breeding to facilitate further development within the global livestock sector.