Source identification of heavy metals in agricultural soils using small sample sizes, simple experimental procedures, and convenient analysis is urgently required. This study employed a simple source identification model using a visual comparison via radar plots, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and a multiple linear regression model to determine the source of heavy metal pollution in soil samples from the Chang-Zhu-Tan urban agglomeration area of China. The elemental compositions of major pollution sources (atmospheric deposition, organic fertilizer, irrigation water, and tailings) were compared with soil samples from 11 study locations and the model was used to determine the relative contribution of different pollution sources at each sample site. The results showed that the model successfully calculated the contribution of different pollution sources at each site based on the pollution characteristics and contaminant transport rules of the region. The proposed method overcomes the requirement for extensive data and complex experimental procedures. Furthermore, the model can determine the source of heavy metal contamination in single or small plots, which is important for the prevention and control of heavy metal soil pollution and remediation at the plot scale.