The Earth's climate is changing at an unprecedented rate, and urgent actions are needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to its impacts. The European Union (EU) aims to become the first climate-neutral bloc of countries by 2050 and has launched the ambitious "European Green Deal" to achieve this goal. The EU Taxonomy Regulation was established to ensure that capital is channeled towards genuinely green investments, but there is no consensus on what should be assessed and how.
This thesis explores alternative paths to sustainable innovation using circular bioeconomy systems. The thesis reviews the versatility of empirical studies and analyzes three concrete cases of sustainability performance assessments involving biopolymers in food packaging, bio-based fertilizers, and bio-based chemicals. The findings provide insights for policymakers on their journey towards a low-carbon bioeconomy and recommendations for further research work to ensure transparency, replicability and validity of case studies.