Nout, M.J.R.


Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. The diversity of food fermentations includes typical anaerobic events such as the lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic fermentation and brine maturations, but also aerobic processes such as alkaline fermentation and fungal fermentation. During fermentations, antimicrobial metabolites (organic acids, alcohols, bacteriocins) may be formed that could enhance food safety by inhibiting or killing foodborne pathogens. Food safety may be threatened by production of hazardous metabolites (biogenic amines, ethyl carbamate) and certain pathogenic microorganisms that survive or grow in fermented foods.