Angiopoietin-like 4 promotes the intracellular cleavage of lipoprotein lipase by PCSK3/furin in adipocytes

Dijk, Wieneke; Ruppert, Philip M.M.; Oost, Lynette J.; Kersten, Sander


Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) catalyzes the breakdown of circulating triglycerides in muscle and fat. LPL is inhibited by several proteins, including angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), and may be cleaved by members of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/ kexin (PCSK) family. Here, we aimed to investigate the cleavage of LPL in adipocytes by PCSKs and study the potential involvement of ANGPTL4. A substantial portion of LPL in mouse and human adipose tissue was cleaved into N- and C-terminal fragments. Treatment of different adipocytes with the PCSK inhibitor decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethyl ketone markedly decreased LPL cleavage, indicating that LPL is cleaved by PCSKs. Silencing of Pcsk3/furin significantly decreased LPL cleavage in cell culture medium and lysates of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Remarkably, PCSK-mediated cleavage of LPL in adipocytes was diminished by Angptl4 silencing and was decreased in adipocytes and adipose tissue of Angptl4/ mice. Differences in LPL cleavage between Angptl4/ and WT mice were abrogated by treatment with decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethyl ketone. Induction of ANGPTL4 in adipose tissue during fasting enhanced PCSK-mediated LPL cleavage, concurrent with decreased LPL activity, in WT but not Angptl4/ mice. In adipocytes, after removal of cell surface LPL by heparin, levels of N-terminal LPL were still markedly higher in WT compared with Angptl4/ adipocytes, suggesting that stimulation of PCSK-mediated LPL cleavage by ANGPTL4 occurs intracellularly. Finally, treating adipocytes with insulin increased full-length LPL and decreased N-terminal LPL in an ANGPTL4-dependent manner. In conclusion, ANGPTL4 promotes PCSK-mediated intracellular cleavage of LPL in adipocytes, likely contributing to regulation of LPL in adipose tissue. Our data provide further support for an intracellular action of ANGPTL4 in adipocytes.