Free amino residues react with α-dicarbonyl compounds (DCs) contributing to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Phenolic compounds can scavenge DCs, thus controlling the dietary carbonyl load. This study showed that high-molecular weight cocoa melanoidins (HMW-COM), HMW bread melanoidins (HMW-BM), and especially HMW coffee melanoidins (HMW-CM) are effective DC scavengers. HMW-CM (1 mg/mL) scavenged more than 40% DCs within 2 h under simulated physiological conditions, suggesting some physiological relevance. Partial acid hydrolysis of HMW-CM decreased the dicarbonyl trapping capacity, demonstrating that the ability to react with glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGO), and diacetyl was mainly because of polyphenols bound to macromolecules. Caffeic acid (CA) and 3-caffeoylquinic acid showed a DC-scavenging kinetic profile similar to that of HMW-CM, while mass spectrometry data confirmed that hydroxyalkylation and aromatic substitution reactions led to the formation of a stable adduct between CA and MGO. These findings corroborated the idea that antioxidant-rich indigestible materials could limit carbonyl stress and AGE formation across the gastrointestinal tract.