PUFA-Derived N-Acylethanolamide Probes Identify Peroxiredoxins and Small GTPases as Molecular Targets in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages
Bus, Ian Arris de; America, Antoine H.P.; Ruijter, Norbert C.A. de; Lam, Milena; Sande, Jasper W. van de; Poland, Mieke; Witkamp, Renger F.; Zuilhof, Han; Balvers, Michiel G.J.; Albada, Bauke
We studied the mechanistic and biological origins of anti-inflammatory poly-unsaturated fatty acid-derived N-acylethanolamines using synthetic bifunctional chemical probes of docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) and arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with 1.0 μg mL-1lipopolysaccharide. Using a photoreactive diazirine, probes were covalently attached to their target proteins, which were further studied by introducing a fluorescent probe or biotin-based affinity purification. Fluorescence confocal microscopy showed DHEA and AEA probes localized in cytosol, specifically in structures that point toward the endoplasmic reticulum and in membrane vesicles. Affinity purification followed by proteomic analysis revealed peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx1) as the most significant binding interactor of both DHEA and AEA probes. In addition, Prdx4, endosomal related proteins, small GTPase signaling proteins, and prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2, also known as cyclooxygenase 2 or COX-2) were identified. Lastly, confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed the colocalization of Ptgs2 and Rac1 with DHEA and AEA probes. These data identified new molecular targets suggesting that DHEA and AEA may be involved in reactive oxidation species regulation, cell migration, cytoskeletal remodeling, and endosomal trafficking and support endocytosis as an uptake mechanism.