Surfactin is a lipoheptapeptide produced by several Bacillus species and identified for the first time in 1969. At first, the biosynthesis of this remarkable biosurfactant was described in this review. The peptide moiety of the surfactin is synthesized using huge multienzymatic proteins called NonRibosomal Peptide Synthetases. This mechanism is responsible for the peptide biodiversity of the members of the surfactin family. In addition, on the fatty acid side, fifteen different isoforms (from C12 to C17) can be incorporated so increasing the number of the surfactin-like biomolecules. The review also highlights the last development in metabolic modeling and engineering and in synthetic biology to direct surfactin biosynthesis but also to generate novel derivatives. This large set of different biomolecules leads to a broad spectrum of physico-chemical properties and biological activities. The last parts of the review summarized the numerous studies related to the production processes optimization as well as the approaches developed to increase the surfactin productivity of Bacillus cells taking into account the different steps of its biosynthesis from gene transcription to surfactin degradation in the culture medium.