This dataset contains leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence data, leaf morphological data, and irrigation data collected in two experiments conducted in 2019 (EXP2019) and 2020 (EXP2020), at Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of leaf photosynthetic parameters to growth temperature and drought stress in winter wheat. Briefly, in EXP2019, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes, Thésée and Récital, were subjected to well-watered and drought treatments; in EXP2020 the two water regimes combined with high (HT), medium (MT) and low (LT) growth temperatures were imposed on Thésée. For the processes of data collection: firstly, irrigation data were collected once water stress treatment was imposed. Weight of each pot was measured by weighing pots daily. Secondly, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence data were collected simultaneously by using a portable photosynthetic system (Li-Cor 6800; Li-Cor Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA) equipped with an integrated fluorescence chamber head of 6 cm2. Lastly, the portion of the flag leaves used for gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements was cut to determine its area, weight (i.e., leaf morphological data), as well as leaf carbon and nitrogen concentrations.