Circular animal systems

Optimized protein production systems can deliver benefits for sustainability, cost, and equity. By working toward zero waste, upcycling proteins to the maximal use, the total protein supply is increased without the need for additional resources. In the optimal system, food-feed competition is eliminated, and all sources fit for direct consumption are applied in food. Resources that are not suitable for human consumption can be upcycled through use of microorganisms, insects, or other animals.