The developments towards a new Blue Economy are still underway, which offers the best possible opportunities for the design of integrated wind farms that include production, nature-inclusivity, circularity (resources and nutrients) and climate resilience.
European Union Blue Growth-strategy
The EU strategically focuses on 'Blue Growth' to galvanise the economic change and the European competitive edge through innovations in the marine and maritime sector. Innovations in marine food production are a crucial aspect of this strategy.
Wind farms have been planned in several locations on the Dutch Continental Plate (DCP). Other sites are sought as well. It is increasingly important that these zones are available for multi-use.
Wageningen Marine Research maps:
Pilot projects in seaweed cultivation and oyster farming are already underway in several areas, indicated on the map below.
Seaweed seemingly offers endless possibilities. It serves as a novel ingredient on our menu, a 'secret ingredient' in livestock and fish feed, a source of health supplements, or a sustainable feedstock for bioplastics and fuel. Businesses and governments seize the opportunities wind farms offer to cultivate seaweed and algae. The North Sea Regional Agenda 2050 even includes 400 square kilometres in sustainable seaweed farming.
Wageningen University & Research and the North Sea Farm Foundation (Stichting Noordzeeboerderij) are currently working on a wide range of related research projects with the first 17 partners from the seaweed sector.
Wageningen Marine Research studies:
Lobster and edible crab
Preliminary research shows that pot and trap fisheries for lobster and edible crab offer a viable business model.
Wageningen Marine Research collaborates with Wageningen Economic Research and a fisheries cluster made up of Cramer Noordwijk Beheer BV (Rems Cramer), Noordzee Charters (Arjan Korving) and Rederij W. van der Zwan & Zn BV within the Win-Wind-consortium (funded by TKI Wind op Zee). This consortium studies the possibilities with regard to lobster and crab fishing around offshore wind farms.
In the WIN-WIND project, we study:
Mussels and oysters
Research indicates that shellfish farming could be a profitable business model for offshore wind farms.
In the Gemini Wind Farm north of Schiermonnikoog, 1000 oysters and experimental cages have been deployed in collaboration with the Flat Oyster Consortium (Platte Oesterconsortium, POC). This is a first attempt at creating an oyster bed in a wind farm. In wind farm Luchterduinen, experiments with flat oysters are underway. Until the start of the 20th century, some 20% of the North Sea bed was covered in oyster beds. However, these beds have all but disappeared due to overfishing, disease and climate change. We hope to stimulate the recovery of nature by reintroducing oysters and creating opportunities for oyster farming.
The preliminary results are encouraging. The oysters are procreating, and biodiversity is on the rise and research on keeping the local oysters healthy appears promising. Oyster reefs also provide shelter for other species such as lobsters and crabs that can also be fished.
Together with the fishing industry and stakeholders, Wageningen Marine Research is working on alternatives to bottom trawling in wind farms.
Bottom trawling, such as fishing for flatfish, is not permitted in wind farms due to the possibility of damage to wind turbines and cables.
To compensate for the loss of fishing grounds, Wageningen Marine Research is conducting research on which fish species are found in wind farms and which fishing techniques would be suitable, such as longline or set gillnet fishing.